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Area studies

Read about this period in the assigned chapters 11 and 12, and this week`s lecture in unit 5.

What is your opinion on the West`s involvement in Japan during the 19th century?
Did the force-opening of Japan produce a positive or negative outcome?
Read about this period in the assigned chapters 11 and 12, and this week`s lecture in unit 5.

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Area studies

Directions for final publish:

DIRECTIONS FOR ROUGH publish:
Your publish should be at least 2.5 pages (not including Working Bibliography) and include all the sections required for your formal paper (assignment below). You want to get as much on paper as possible so that you can see what you still need to work on. Make sure you review the rubric so you know what`s expected for a good paper.
Your publish should be in the correct format (MLA style, Times New Roman 12, double spaced with no extra spaces). You should include the section headings from the assignment (Introduction, Knowledge Review, Working Bibliography); headings should be in regular font. And don`t forget a title for your paper–a title that will tell your reader what your research project is about. Your Working Bibliography should use MLA style and should be in alphabetical order.
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DIRECTIONS FOR FINAL publish:

The successful project will pose a question worth exploring and demonstrate your personal interest in doing so. Your question should be a genuine question, a question that can be answered through scholarly research and field study, a question whose answer is open to interpretation rather than purely factual. While you will not need to have scholarly sources at this point, your sources should be credible and should be moving toward a specific focus within your topic rather than an assemblage of loosely related information.
Your formal research project proposal should include the following sections (labeled using no special fonts or effects in your paper):
Introduction:
Define the topic, explaining any background or terms your reader may need to know; discuss why you are interested in this topic, including any personal experience or connection to it; clearly state the actual question you propose to investigate.
Knowledge Review:
Summarize what you already know about the topic from your preliminary survey of sources, as well as your own experience if you have any, using new details (don`t repeat what you wrote in your intro.). Your summary should be in your own words! You need to cite any information that is quoted, paraphrased, or is not common knowledge using parenthetical citations (MLA style). This section should be at least 1 page but no more than 3 pages.
In MLA style, use the author`s last name and the page number, if provided, in your parenthetical citation, e.g. (Wolverton) or (Wolverton 74); if there is no author, use a short form of the title in quotes, for short works, or italics for full-length works (“What Are Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency”). Note: all sources cited must be listed in your Working Bibliography; parenthetical citations are incomplete without the full citation. Follow examples from Purdue Owl for citations and/or ask for assistance— not knowing how to do it right is not an excuse.
Sample citations (in alphabetical order):
“Sleep Deprived: We`re Recharging Our Phones, But Not Ourselves.” Weekend Edition Saturday, narrated by Scott Simon, NPR, 9 Apr. 2016, npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/04/09/473406980/sleep-deprived-wererecharging-our-phones-but-not-ourselves.
“What Are Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency.” National Institutes of Health. 22 Feb. 2012, nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/sdd.
Wolverton, Mark. “Chasing Slumber.” Psychology Today 2 Sep. 2013, psychologytoday.com/articles/201309/chasing-slumber.

Ordinarily, you would conclude a formal paper with a Works Cited page which would include only those sources actually cited in your project.
However, since you`re just starting your research, you should include here any sources that you think may be useful, including all the sources actually drawn on or cited in your Knowledge Review.
For this section, start a new page and center the heading “Working Bibliography” at the top (be sure to use the function so that this will always be at the top of a new page). Include all sources you plan to use at this point. Please use MLA style for this list. For full credit, you should have at least 6 general-information sources (websites, newspaper articles, magazine articles, short videos, broadcast media articles, etc.); you want to have different kinds of sources—not just newspaper articles, for example. Your list should be in alphabetical order. All sources should be reliable, meeting the class criteria for reliability. Also, your sources should give you different information about your topic, not just repeat the same facts and statistics.
As far as format, your proposal should be set up like a formal MLA-style paper (see the examples from Purdue Owl). Give your proposal a title (something that tells the reader what she`s going to read but isn`t your actual research question). Use section headings (the ones in the assignment!) for each section of the paper (only the standard double space after heading, no extra spaces); you may leave an extra space between sections. Your paper should be at least 3 pages (not including Working Bibliography).
Rubric
Final Research Proposal (2)
Final Research Proposal (2)
Criteria Ratings
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome FOCUS/Introduction
Original, sophisticated focus
with developed research
question that is connected to
well-defined topic. Includes detailed research process.
A Paper
Original, sophisticated focus with developed research question that is connected to well-defined topic.
B Paper
Clear and well maintained focus; research question is developed, and topic is generally defined.
C Paper
Maintains a clear and appropriate focus describing the topic and general research question.
D Paper
Lack of focus; seems more like a rough publish than a final version. Leaves too many questions about the topic and research question.
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome DEVELOPMENT
Significantly developed;
illustrates sustained inquiry,
thought. Knowledge Review
demonstrates thorough understanding of topic and includes in-text citations.
A Paper
Significantly developed; illustrates sustained inquiry, thought. Knowledge Review demonstrates thorough understanding of topic and includes in-text citations.
B Paper
Developed ideas; some careful thought and analysis. Detail in Knowledge Review. Knowledge Review demonstrates understanding of topic and includes in-text citations.
C Paper
Some examples and supporting evidence, but ideas obvious or under- developed; surface-level analysis. Knowledge Review is general and is missing in-text citations.
D Paper
Inadequate development of ideas with few or weak supporting examples; little to no analysis. No in-text citations.
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome ORGANIZATION
Organization supports
function of proposal: gives
context, specifics; includes
writer`s own perspectives.
Audience can follow research plan.
The assignment directions and subtitles are followed.
A Paper
Organization supports function of proposal: gives context, specifics; includes writer`s own perspectives. The assignment directions and subtitles are followed.
B Paper
Effective use of organization strategies that do not inhibit the purpose, but do not support the multiple angles of the event/issue. The assignment directions and subtitles are mostly followed.
C Paper
Organization could be more appropriate and/or more effective; distinct parts seem unrelated to each other. The assignment directions are not consistently followed and some subtitles are missing.
D Paper
Lacks clear or appropriate organization; organization detracts from paper`s purpose. The assignment directions are not followed and subtitles are missing.
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome LANGUAGE
Varied language structures
engage the reader; few to no
sentence-structure problems.
A Paper
Varied language structures engage the reader; few to no sentence-structure problems.
B Paper
Illustrates more than minimum facility with language; engage the reader; few sentence-level problems.
C Paper
Illustrates a basic facility with language; significant sentence-level problems.
D Paper
Sentence-level problems obscure meaning.
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome FORMAT/CITATIONS
Formatted as MLA style
paper. Includes headings as
assigned. Citations are clear and correct. The Working Bibliography is formatted correctly and contains at least 6 sources.
A Paper
Formatted as MLA style paper. Includes headings as assigned. Citations are clear and correct. The Working Bibliography is formatted correctly and contains at least 6 sources.
B Paper
MLA style format mostly followed. Citations are mostly clear and correct. The Working Bibliography contains at least 4-5 sources.
C Paper
Some format errors. Citation is evident if incorrect. The Working Bibliography contains at least 3-4 sources.
D Paper
Major format issues. In-text and end citations missing.

Categories
Area studies

Acceptable sources may be located from the following: the textbook

Essay: Chinese Landscape Painting
In Module 05, we looked at the development of art and architecture in some cultures throughout Asia. As we look back at Chapter 34, we recall the rich artistic tradition of China. For this essay, think back on some of the Chinese artists. In particular, consider those whose subject matter was landscape painting. Then, answer these questions:
How does landscape painting in China differ from European landscape painting?
What medium is often used?
How is calligraphy incorporated into these paintings?
What are some recurring themes within these works?
Who was Giuseppe Castiglione? What was his involvement in Chinese art?
Cite at least three specific examples to help support your statements. Be sure to include at least one work by Castiglione.
Writing Requirements:
Your essay must be at least 3 pages long.
You must use a word processing program (such as MS Word) to write your essay.
Provide three (3) sources
Wikipedia and other non-academic websites will not be accepted for this criteria.
Acceptable sources may be located from the following:
the textbook
Academic and scholarly journals
smarthistory.org
Museum websites – such as those linked on this page: Artcyclopedia: US Museum List http://www.artcyclopedia.com/museums-us.html
he sources above are merely suggestions of where credible sources could be found, and should not be mistaken as always acceptable. Please use proper academic discretion to determine if your source is appropriate. If you have any questions regarding this, please review this website: Purdue Writing Lab (Links to an external site.) or speak with your local librarian.

Categories
Area studies

What information contained in the articles might be useful for when you might be designing a study of your own?

Why is there so much violence in urban cities
Find three qualitative articles that pertain to the area of research in which you`re interested.
These articles should take an exclusively qualitative approach, meaning that they should not take a mixed-methods approach where quantitative and statistical methods are used alongside of qualitative methods. (A rule of thumb for spotting a mixed-methods approach is that the article will have a table or graph that makes use of statistics, frequencies, number of etc.)
Next, write a brief evaluation of how these articles might pertain to your area of research interest. In other words, how might the findings of the articles help frame an argument you`d like to make or a question you`d like to explore? What information contained in the articles might be useful for when you might be designing a study of your own? Explain any qualitative methodological insights the articles might have that you might use when tailoring your own methodology.
Please provide a copy of the articles when you submit this assignment along with your own 150–300-word evaluations of each article (450-900 words total). If you`re unsure about whether the articles you`ve found are qualitative.

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Area studies

Please respond to the following discussion,

Lesson Six Discussion Question:
Please respond to the following discussion,
Very few would argue with the claim that the President`s role as Commander-in-Chief is the greatest formal power that a president possesses. Yet, in the Constitution, only Congress has the authority to formally “declare war.” Presidents for the last 60-70 years have openly stated that they do not need Congressional authorization to use the military to pursue America`s interests on the global stage. As proof, America has not formally declared war since WWII. So, Korea, Vietnam, Gulf War, Iraq War, Afghanistan, and now Syria have all been military exercises, but not wars in the Constitutional sense.
Has the power of the President of the United States as Commander-in-Chief exceeded constitutional boundaries and should those powers be curtailed, given the constant state of war we find ourselves in? Or should the President`s military powers continue to expand to address the growing chaos in our world, despite the Constitution or in congruence with the Constitution? Explain your answer.
Your initial discussion postings (250-300 words) should demonstrate an understanding and analysis of the assigned readings and video. It may be helpful to reference the assigned material in your response demonstrating connections between your thoughts and the course resources

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Area studies

You will be evaluated according to your grasp and critique of the author`s argument as well as your writing style (grammar, punctuation, and structure).

You are required to write a one to two-page (12-pt., Times New Roman font, 1-inch margins, single-spaced, 400-600 words, no title page, no abstract, and no bibliography or reference list) summary and critique of the reading assigned for each week. Each summary and critique should have one “section” (multiple paragraphs) that summarizes the main argument of the reading and another “section” (multiple paragraphs) that criticizes either the argument and/or the evidence presented by the author. You will be evaluated according to your grasp and critique of the author`s argument as well as your writing style (grammar, punctuation, and structure).

Categories
Area studies

The shorthand version of how it works now is;

LESSON 03
This week we`ll be looking at the Electoral College.
In the last few years, the United States of America came off of a contentious presidential election after an ALREADY-controversial presidential term that many feel was caused by the flaws of the Electoral College. Not to mention that back in 2000 we had this debate as well, so it`s obvious that it`s a thing people have strong feelings and criticisms of. So, let`s take a dive in to see WHY what happened did happen, and where it all came from.
The way the Electoral College works is rooted in a point from the 1787 Convention that wanted the US Congress, NOT the people directly, to technically “vote for” the American President. However, the publication “The Federalist Papers,” when in circulation, repeatedly called for the reminding that the US Government should AT THE LEAST be a mixture of both legislative and state-based governance/representation. Therefore, the original plans for the Electoral College were drawn up to basically state;
Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.
[…]
The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.
This means that states will select “electors” or representatives in a unique “college” (group) who, based on votes within the state, then cast a vote in a smaller election. The number of “electors” per state is tied to the number of representatives they have in Congress in both the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Now, the Senate is made up of two Senators from every state (as of 2022 there are thus technically 100 Senators), but the House of Representatives is made up of a different number every year, as representation there is based on state population. This sounds complex but the basic gist is that since the assumption was that people wouldn`t lie about what votes/candidates their states were putting forward based on LOCAL votes and that there`d be too many people to always get an accurate un-challengeable popular vote, this was a good compromise.
Thus, while people in states vote for President and Vice President, the elected (or chosen) representatives of each state then say what their state voted for and THAT then determined the presidency.
With the formation of political parties for the election of 1796 though, it was clear that the system needed some fine-tuning. With clear partisan divisions now rather than each Congressional representative (in both the House and Senate), the election of 1800 was the last straw (with clashes over equal numbers for candidates meaning that Congress had to essentially have a special meeting (as their bylaws stated) to pick someone themselves rather than just tally votes).
The root of the problem was that there was no clear winner for who the candidate for President (versus Vice-President) was for the Democratic Republicans, Jefferson, or Burr (Burr had also been nominated as VP technically but the votes in the Electoral College didn`t make any clear distinction).
So, in 1803, Congress (to fix this issue) ruled and implemented new procedures for the Electoral College that clearly stated that EACH party had to state which candidate was their candidate for President, and which was for Vice President. Also, each Electoral College representative now had to separately vote for both President and Vice President, so that there`d be no confusion over who was who.
The shorthand version of how it works now is;
Parties hold internal votes to select candidates for both President and Vice President. The campaigning up to that is called the “primary.”
Once candidates for parties are determined and announced, then you have the campaigns up until Voting Day.
As votes in each state are gathered and tallied, the results for that state are delivered to the state`s electors, who then cast a vote. The number of electors and the “votes” (more like points) that each state has is dependent on both A) the population of the state and B) the number of representatives it has in Congress.
Thus, whoever gets the most “points” wins, versus the most “votes”. Rather, votes determine how many points you get access to.
Since then, the Electoral College has had its shares of ups and downs as people have continued to debate the merits of it versus popular vote, which since the 18th century, has gotten easier to count and verify. The usage of this “college” to make the call on the Presidential election has been considered a positive by some as a good way to add a measure of security to the process, an extra counting step between popular vote and announcement. However, others point to its general state of unfairness, a barrier between the will of the people and being able to express it in politics.
Also, as many scholars have pointed out, the system was built to actually still give some level of power in the Congress to states with slavery (since slaves could partially be considered part of a state`s population despite not having rights, which allowed slaveholding states with lower voter populations to beef up the numbers and gain more representation in the House when they technically didn`t “deserve” it), which puts a lot of focus on, since the abolition of slavery, how it can unevenly distribute power across the map of the continental US. This means that at times, the popular vote numbers do not necessarily match electoral college numbers.
When in 2016 Donald Trump defeated Hillary Clinton for the Presidency to the surprise of many, that election is noted for the discrepancy between the electoral and popular numbers. Going further back to 2000, the state of Florida and the Electoral College were in the news over the recount of FL`s popular vote to figure out who would get the electoral “votes” of that state to confirm the winner of the election, where the state eventually decided that they didn`t want to finish the recount and declared for George Bush.
While not a perfect system by any means, the Electoral College has been a part of the US essentially since the beginning of the modern American government, and has both supporters and critics from across the sociopolitical spectrum.
However, I`m curious as to where you guys all stand on it, especially in light of more recent discussions to to abolish it. What do you think? Should we maintain the current system with all its flaws, or should we completely move towards a popular vote system since the technologies and systems are, in theory, there to support it?
dear writer, please write your thoughts about this topic to participate in the discussion. (150 words minimum).
Then, In a 1.5-page informal essay, address the following prompt;
What could possibly go wrong with attempts to replace the Electoral College?

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Area studies

-explain the history and the concept of negritude

Answer all in different paragraphs
-Explain the history and the concept of Negritude
– Explain how Ibrahim El Salahi`s career illustartes the consecutive period of modernism, independence, and the contemporary
-Explain how El Salahi`s work and exhibition represents a breakthrough fro contemporary African art in general, and in which way Meshac Gaba, the Benin artist receiving an exhibition at the same time in the museum, is an heir of El Salahi.
-What are the breakthroughs brougth by the exhibition Africa Explores and Magiciens de la Terr

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Area studies

Apply if you have a movie.

Apply if you have a movie.
Does knowing the case and outcome that we just watched was based on actual events make a difference in your interpretation of the episode?